Sunday, 6 October 2013

even more bibliography entries

Emerson, J. (2013). The Effect on using iPad to Enhance Sight Word Acquisition of Students with Autism. Rowan University. Retrieved from

This study looks at the sight word acquisition and what effect the use of an iPad has on this. There is information relating to the instruction for phonics, information about phonics instruction for individuals, computer-assisted instruction for phonics and then looks at iPads as an instructional tool.
The case study is based on the use of iPads used for sight word acquisition and looks at four autistic children with different individual needs. Testing is completed before and after to determine whether the iPad effects the learning.

This study is the most closely aligned with my own research topic. The results from the case study show an increase result from the before and after testing which had been completed.
The information within the study shows the differences in instruction between teaching phonics to children with and without ASD and then also with the use of computers. This makes the connections clear to see and understand.

Wendt, O. (2012) The Places We'll Go: Innovative Web App Helps Children with Autism. Case in Point, Vol 10 (5) pg 24-25 retrieved from

This article looks at the use of web applications and how it boosts communication ability for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. It looks at Augmentative and Alternative communication (ADD) interventions and the use of Speech Generating Devices (SGD) and the benefit on children that have delayed learning. There is also information relating to the creation of applications; Applications are not all created equal and some of them ignore some of the common traits that children with Autism have.

I really enjoyed reading this article. It went into the information deep enough to allow the reader to develop a clear understanding of what it is trying to tell you but not so far that you are overwhelmed with information. It was straight to the point and had many key points that fit with my own research topic. The point about the applications not all being equal was a valid point that I have not come across in other articles.

Butterfly Effect Editorial Staff, 2011. iPads: Communicating Across the Autism Chasm. retrieved from

This artice looks at applications designed for people living with Autism. It outlines the positive effect that the use of technology and devices have; They:
  • Reply primarily on visual cues, which are much more effective than auditory cues for individuals with Autism
  • Provide as much time as needed for those with processing delays
  • Don't object to endless repetition, as they are nonjudgmental, infinitely patient, and don't hold grudges
  • Provide the specific types of stimulation that attract rather than overwhelm individuals with Autism
  • Offer large measures of predictability and consistency, compared to the unpredictable nature of human responses
  • Do not send conflicting social interaction cues that are a staple of typical human communication
  • Place the user in control
The article also provides information about what some function specific programs allow the user to do and that the use of applications has been shown to support or improve:

  • Cognitive development
  • Language skill mastery
  • Academic performance
  • Behavioral changes
  • Abilities to cope with transition and change
  • Social interaction
  • Choice-making skills
  • Facial recognition and the reading of human expression

The use of applications are endless, this article only highlights a few of them but the information that it does provide gives parents, teachers and specialists a huge pool of information to look through and consider when planning for the individual needs of the autistic child. The information here is very informative to anyone looking at application use.

Short, J., Labine, S., Bruner, J., Cardoso, C. & Trick C. (n.d.) Benefits of Technology in Special Education retrieved from,d.dGI


This study looks at the use of technology within education for students with disabilities. Researchers looked at the effects that technology has on education and concluded that certain aspects of technology does improve the educational achievement of students that have disabilities.  Following this a case study was completed with the focus on students using PCs or iPads to to determine whether it enhanced the learning experience. The study showed that yes the research supported the data from the case study.

Seeing the connection between the huge amount of research that was completed and the results from the case study was very informative. Their are clear links between the research and the results which would determine that the authors had a successful case study. The mix of using computers, flash cards and iDevices within the case study shows an interesting mix between the three different learning tools.

Autism. (2013, October 5). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 02:13, October 7, 2013, from

The information that wikipedia has on Autism is amazing. It includes information about:

  • What it is
  • What the characteristics are with in-depth information on these
  • Causes of Autism
  • Mechanisms
  • Diagnosis
  • Screening
  • Management
  • Prognosis
  • Epidemiology
  • History
It also has external links for other resources that have more information about autism.

This is a good place for anyone that is interested about autism to start. It gives the reader the benefit of a huge amount of information in the one place to gain a good understanding about the disorder as well as what someone who has it encounters on a regular basis. Very useful information.

4th Learning Reflection

Wow, course nearly done and dusted. It is amazing how fast time flies when you are busy; sometimes you have to stop and take a breather to make sure your not missing anything!

The course has been full on! But I have thoroughly enjoyed it. When I decided to start my postgraduate papers I went and had a look at all the options. There was really no decision in what I chose to focus on; ICT is an ever-changing invention that seems to just keep getting bigger and bigger. The way the learning has been scaffolded has made this full on course manageable and given a good sequence of activities which has allowed me to stay on top of everything.

My ICT knowledge coming into the course was minimal. I knew the basics for using digital technologies and although wanting to learn more I never really made the time to do so. Because of this the first thing I learnt was how to be a blogger! When I was on placements I was always worried that I would be asked to update the blog or put something on the blog, this won't happen now -well I won't have anymore placements now that I have my degree; but also because I know how to blog. I have learnt how to create links, add pictures and videos to my blog as well as create labels so that everyone else in the course can see the new knowledge that like them I am gaining.

After this the new knowledge kept on coming. I felt like I was struggling with my understanding but when sitting down to complete an e-activity or reflection I realised how much I was actually learning and my understanding was increasing with each activity.

What I enjoyed the most would have to be the SP4Ed learning in the mOOC. I felt drawn in from day one of the learning. The final activity where I was looking at the future scenarios I was also looking at the past, at what has already happened and at what is happening now. The theory relates to practice and has done for a long time, From when Shell used scenario planning to now and well into the future. It is an effective tool for looking at what could happen in years to come.

 I have just finished writing my research paper, ready to proof read and spell check before submitting in the morning. I always wondered what motivated people to write articles and research papers; My father writes a lot of them and it didn't really make much sense to me but I guess in a way it is people teaching others what they know.

I am still questioning my understanding of eLPF, I understood the eMM really well and could make links to it however I feel I need to look into eLPF a bit more, gain some new knowledge about it and increase my understanding. Is this feeling because I haven't been teaching in a school other than placements but I have been a full time university student for over 4 years? Definitely something that I will look into as I start working next year (thinking positively that I get a job).

A big thank you to everyone in the course, having feedback from all of you and the ability to ready your posts and reflections has been a great informative part of the course; and of course to Wayne and Niki for running a very effective and well scaffolded course.

For the last reflection I leave you with this quote:

The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be kindled.  
                                                     - Plutarch

more bibliography entries

Tunney, R., & Ryan, M. (2012). Can iDevices help teaching assistants support pupils with ASD? Journal of Assistive Technologies, 6(3), 182-191. retrieved from

This research shows how idevices can be used to assist Teacher Aides when working with ASD children. It looks at how the devices can support the current learning style or be used instead of the normal learning style.
When completing the case study the TAs met on a regular basis and gave feedback.
Six dominant themes came up which are directly related to TAs, these were 

1. Supporting the curriculum
2. Managing pupil anxieties and behaviour
3. Increasing pupils' engagement 
4. Rewarding positive behaviours 
5. Developing communication and social skills 
6. Challenges in introducing iDevices

The use of idevices by the TAs within these themes is detailed and includes pros and cons.
The research has highlights practical and and implementation considerations that need to be looked at.

This research has a lot of valuable information hidden within it. The research is based on Teacher Aides using the idevices but the common themes across the TAs that were part of the study are also ones in which the classroom teacher will have. There are some good links to my research topic and implementation considerations would tie in with choosing the appropriate change model.

Bölte, S., Golan, O., Goodwin, M.., Zwaigenbaum, L. (2010) What can innovative technologies do for autism spectrum disorders?Autism, Vol 14(3), May 2010, 155-159. doi: 10.1177/1362361310365028

This article looks at the use of technology for Autistic children. It looks at how technology is used to help with treatment strategies and enhance the lives of those living with ASD. The article is part of a special issue which focuses on autism and technology. It summarises findings from presentations that were at the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR).

The findings that are looked at in this article are:

  • Transfer of emotion recognition skills acquired through computer-based training into daily life. 
  • Whether adolescents with higher functioning ASD (n= 10) experience virtual realities in different ways to typically developing peers (TD; n= 14), and if virtual realities can accurately simulate ecologically-valid social situations.
  • Efficacy of computer-assisted instruction for students with ASD 
  • Usage of toy construction via tangible user interfaces to support social interaction. 
  • Findings obtained with a new diagnostic tool for the acoustic analysis of prosody in ASD that measures focal stress and vocalimitation.
This article has some very interesting information in relation to the use of technology for ASD children. Some of the different aspects are irrelevant to my question relating to learning applications however the one which focuses on computer-assisted instruction will be useful when completing my research article.

Kay, S. (2012). CAN TOUCH SCREEN TABLETS HELP CHILDREN WITH AUTISM?. Exceptional Parent, 42(11), 38.  retrieved from

This article looks at the use of touch screen devices and whether they are beneficial for use with children that have autism spectrum disorder. It highlights some key problems which the children could face if they haven't developed the motor skills required to use a touch screen, addresses the aggression found in some children with ASD and puts emphasis on establishing that the use of a tablet would be beneficial to their child.

 The article is quite small and a lot of it is based on the authors opinion as stated in the abstract. The author offers some valid points for consideration when implementing the use of learning applications and devices and briefly touches on the requirements that would need to be looked at if the change is going to take place. Overall the article has helped me to open my eyes and look at a few other avenues within my research before completing my own research paper.

Bascand, G. (2012). Household Use of Information and Communication Technology, Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved from

The statistics shown are based on the use of information and communication technology. It has statistics relating to households and their internet usage,connections and the devices which are being used to connect to the internet. It also shows some statistics on how individuals are using the internet.

The statistics for the year 2012 show the increase in technology usage within New Zealand. The devices used to connect to and use the internet has changed from mostly computers to laptops and handheld computers being the most popular way to access the internet. This links to my research question on a small scale. The information about the use of devices and laptops being popular links to the devices required for the use of learning applications. Overall very interesting statistics when you look at the comparison to the usage in 2009.

Shah, N. (2011). Special Ed. Pupils Find Learning Tool In iPad Applications. (cover story). Education Week, 30(22), 1-17. retrieved from

This article looks at how learning applications can be used within the classroom with iPads as a learning tool for children with Autism as well as other disabilities. The article looks at some specific children with disabilities and how the use of learning applications on iPads has improved their learning. It also looks at how the device impacts other aspects within the children's lives.

  • Performance
  • Communication Skills
  • Self Esteem
This article has a lot of good information and has clear connections between the students and the usage of learning applications.There are comments by teachers in relation to these students and the article shares how the students used to be before the use of devices with learning applications to how they are since the change took place.
The article also links these achievements to specific applications that the children have been using within the classroom.